Eminent Domain

December 18, 2023

Act quickly when facing eminent domain on your NC property. Understand rights, dispute improper takings, and execute 1033 Exchanges.

Eminent domain refers to the government's power to acquire private property for public use, even without the owner's consent.

Here are some key aspects to understand:

What Triggers Eminent Domain?

  • Construction of public infrastructure like roads, schools, utilities
  • Community redevelopment projects
  • Large economic development projects

Typical Process

  • Notification letter from acquiring agency
  • Appraisal to determine "fair market value"
  • Compensation offered to property owner
  • If rejected, condemnation lawsuit filed to acquire property

Property Owner Rights

  • Require just compensation at fair market value
  • Challenge public purpose of taking
  • Dispute compensation amount through appraisal process

The prospect of eminent domain can be unsettling for property owners.

Working with an experienced real estate attorney from the outset can help you understand your rights and navigate the process.

Handling Condemnation of Your Property

A condemnation occurs when the government exercises its eminent domain power to acquire private property without the owner's consent. Here's what happens:

Typical Timeline

  • 30-90 days from initial notification to final offer letter
  • 30-60 days to vacate the property after compensation payment

Compensation Determination

  • Independent appraisals conducted
  • "Fair market value" based on recent comparable sales
  • May also cover relocation costs, loss of business, other expenses

Strategies to Protect Your Interests

  • Contest public purpose if questionable
  • Argue for higher compensation through appraisal disputes
  • Seek legal guidance to understand all options

Condemnation can happen quickly, so engage experienced advisors immediately to help you avoid potential pitfalls.

Using IRC Section 1033 Exchanges in an Involuntary Conversion

If your property gets destroyed or taken under eminent domain, you may be eligible for a 1033 Exchange to defer taxes:

What Qualifies

  • Property involuntarily converted to cash under threat of condemnation
  • Cash proceeds used to acquire replacement property

Key Benefits

  • Defer capital gains taxes
  • Preserve investment value by acquiring replacement property


  • Purchase replacement property within 2 years (3 years for primary residence)

With the help of a qualified intermediary, you can execute a 1033 Exchange to mitigate tax burdens when replacing property involuntarily converted.

Final Thoughts From Tim

As a real estate professional serving the Raleigh-Durham area for over 17 years, I've worked with many homeowners and investors dealing with eminent domain and condemnation.

My advice comes from experience guiding clients through these scenarios.

Residential Eminent Domain Advice

For residential owners, act quickly if you receive an acquisition notice.

I can connect you with a real estate attorney to review the offer, ensure proper appraisal methods were used, and negotiate more favorable terms if appropriate.

We may also dispute the public purpose if questionable. If unsuccessful, I can help you identify suitable replacement homes and execute a 1033 exchange to defer taxes.

Commercial Eminent Domain Advice

For commercial owners, eminent domain gets more complex given the scale of properties and investments involved.

It's critical to engage a lawyer right away to protect your interests, argue for higher compensation if warranted, and handle negotiations with the acquiring agency.

I collaborate with condemnation attorneys and 1033 qualified intermediaries to give clients the best shot at preserving their capital investments through the involuntary conversion process.

At the end of the day, eminent domain involves many intricacies around property laws, relocation assistance, tax deferrals, and investment recovery.

My team stands ready to guide you through with the experience and connections to get optimal outcomes.

Reach out anytime for a free consultation on your situation. This is an uncertain process, but you don't have to handle it alone.

Frequently Asked Questions About 1033 Exchange (Eminent Domain)

What is eminent domain?

Eminent domain refers to the government's power to take private property for public use, even without the owner's consent. The property is acquired through condemnation, where the government files a lawsuit to acquire the property in exchange for compensation at fair market value.

How will I know if my property is being taken through eminent domain?

You will receive an official letter from the acquiring agency notifying you that your property is needed for a public project. This provides details on the purpose and kicks off the negotiation and acquisition process.

What are my rights as a property owner facing condemnation?

You have the right to just compensation at fair market value, the ability to contest whether the stated public purpose is valid, and the option to dispute the amount of compensation offered through independent appraisals.

What is a 1033 Exchange?

If a property is involuntarily converted to cash under threat of condemnation, Section 1033 of the tax code allows the owner to defer capital gains taxes by acquiring a replacement property of equal or greater value within a certain time period.

How can a 1033 Exchange benefit me?

A 1033 Exchange preserves the investment value of your condemned property by allowing you to roll gains into a replacement. This shields you from an immediate tax burden at the time of involuntary conversion.

What are the timelines to complete a 1033 Exchange?

You have 2 years after the close of the tax year when you received condemnation compensation to finalize the purchase of a replacement property. For primary residences taken through eminent domain, the timeline extends to 3 years.

What types of properties qualify for a 1033 Exchange?

The replacement property must be similar or related in service or use to the converted property to avoid capital gains taxes under 1033 rules. But the details vary based on whether the affected asset was real estate or other business/investment property.

Can I buy any property as a replacement?

You must buy another property that is "like-kind" to the one taken through eminent domain. The specifics depend on whether you held the converted property for business/investment purpose or strictly as a personal residence. The technicalities can get complex, so seek professional guidance.

Do I have to buy just one replacement property?

No. The IRS allows you to buy multiple replacement properties to aggregate equal or greater value compared to the involuntarily converted property, as long as you adhere to the designated timeframes.

What happens if I don't complete a 1033 Exchange?

If you receive compensation from an involuntary conversion but do not acquire a qualifying replacement property within the applicable timeline, you must pay capital gains taxes on the transaction for the year in which you first received the compensation.

Tim M. Clarke

About the author

17 years as a Realtor in the Research Triangle, Tim seeks to transform the Raleigh-Durham real estate scene through a progressive, people-centered approach prioritizing trust & transparency.

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